Polycapillary optics

X-ray beam shaping with polycapillary optics.

Shaping and focusing of X-rays using glass capillaries of various shapes.


developed and produced¹
One² from
2 manufacturers worldwide
3 options for the
matching polycapillary optics³
¹ ² ³ Show more
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¹ Polycapillary lenses, which are constantly being developed and manufactured in Germany.
² High-end capillary optics made by Fischer – the world's only manufacturer of X-ray fluorescence measuring devices with in-house production of polycapillary optics.
³ Three different high-end polycapillary optics available – the right solution for each of your applications: 10 µm halo-free, 20 µm halo-free or 20 µm standard.

Effective polycapillary optics made to measure.

Polycapillary optics consist of hundreds of extremely fine glass capillaries that are drawn together into a precisely defined shape. They enable almost loss-free transmission, shaping and highly effective focusing of X-rays. We manufacture polycapillary optics according to your individual specifications – for the best results in your application. Let our experts advise you without obligation.

Market-leading performance.

Outstanding measurement results with short measurement times thanks to concentration of the excitation beam

Focus made by Fischer.

One of only two manufacturers of polycapillary optics in the world

High-precision manufacturing.

Manufactured with the highest precision – for the best quality and durability

Constant further development.

Continuous optimization and further development of our optics

Tailor-made for every application.

Individually manufactured polycapillary optics, tailored to your requirements

Outstanding properties.

Best values for aperture, intensity amplification and working distance in a broad energy spectrum from 1 - 50 keV

Patented capillary shapes.

No matter what size and shape, can be perfectly integrated into your equipment and devices

Made in Germany.

Development and manufacture of all components in Berlin

Concentrated expertise.

Over 30 years of know-how in the development of customized polycapillary optics

  • Functionality

      The mode of operation of X-ray capillary optics is based on the effect of the total external reflection of X-rays on the inner, very smooth surfaces of the glass capillaries. For very small angles of incidence, almost 100 % of the X-rays are reflected by the glass wall of the capillary and can therefore be guided through the optics with extremely low losses.

      θcr [rad] " 0.02.r 1/2 [g.cm-3]/E [keV] FWHM " F ٠θcr

      Optics with precisely defined properties such as angle of incidence, focal distance and size of the focal point can be produced by selectively deforming a capillary bundle. They allow X-rays to be concentrated on a defined area of the sample surface. Compared to a pinhole collimator of the same diameter, an intensity five hundred to a thousand times higher can be achieved.

      Essential information for specifying the optics are the properties of the X-ray source, the desired beam shaping, the desired focal spot size, and the energy range of the photons that are to be effectively guided. Due to the high flexibility of the geometric parameters, polycapillary optics enable a wide range of different applications. The different types of X-ray optics and their typical properties are described in VDI/VDE directives 5575, among others.

        Graphic total reflection
        Graphic total reflection
    • Application examples

        Our polycapillary optics enable a wide range of applications:

        • X-ray diffractometry (XRD, µ-XRD, 2D-XRD)
          • Measuring stresses and texture
          • Spatially resolved phase analysis and mappings
          • Single-crystal diffractometry
        • X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF, µ-XRF, 3D-µ-XRF)
          • Measuring thin and very thin coatings and multilayer systems
          • Element and layer thickness mappings in the micrometer range
          • Measuring on the smallest components and microstructures
          • Applications on wafers, PCBs, solder bumps, SMDs, plug contacts and lead frames
        • X-ray microscopy

        Do you have other applications? Then contact us!

    Optics types

    • Focusing polycapillary optics

        Focusing polycapillary optics. Focused X-rays for small focal spots and high intensities.

        Focusing polycapillary opticsfocus the X-rays to achieve high intensities with small focal spots on the sample. Depending on the application objective, individual parameters of the optics can be specifically optimized. For various X-ray spectroscopic applications, either so-called full polycapillary lenses or half lenses can be used. Focusing half lenses are used in synchrotron applications or in confocal XRF devices for 3D spectroscopy.

        Each optic is custom-designed according to your requirements and closely coordinated with you. Please do not hesitate to contact us.


         FWHM @ MoKEnergy range, keVFocus distance

        Mini lenses

        < 10 µm - 4 mm

        1 - 30

        2 mm - 2 m


        < 10 µm - 1 mm

        1 - 30

        2 mm - 200 mm

        Focusing half lenses

        < 10 µm - 1 mm

        1 - 30

        2 mm - 200 mm


        Focusing lens
        Focusing half-lens
    • Collimating polycapillary optics

        Collimating polycapillary optics. From divergent input beam to quasi-parallel output beam.

        Collimating polycapillary optics make it possible to parallelize and collimate divergent radiation. The divergent input beam is transformed into a quasi-parallel output beam. The output beam has a low divergence. Such collimating polycapillary optics are mainly applied in X-ray diffractometry.

        Each optic is custom-designed according to your requirements and closely coordinated with you. Please do not hesitate to contact us.


        large half lens
        mini half lens
        micro half lens

        Output diameter Dout [mm]

        8 - 16

        5 - 8

        3 - 5

        Output divergence Δθ [° (CuKα)]

        0.2 - 0.3

        0.2 - 0.3

        0.2 - 0.3

        Transmission coefficient KTr [% (CuKα)]

        > 40

        > 40

        > 40


        Collimating half lens

    Fischer Insights.


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